Lits'oaetso tse khahlanong le chelete le tse khahlanong le bokhukhuni ka lichelete tsa The Netherlands le Ukraine

Selelekela

Sechabeng sa rona se fetohang digital, likotsi tse mabapi le tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni li hola haholo. Bakeng sa mekhatlo ho bohlokoa ho hlokomela likotsi tsena. Mekhatlo e tlameha ho nepahala haholo ka ts'ebeliso. Naheng ea Netherlands, sena se sebetsa haholo ho litsi tse ikarabellang tlasa Molao oa Dutch mabapi le thibelo ea tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni (Wwft). Litlamo tsena li kentsoe molemong oa ho fumana le ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Bakeng sa tlhaiso-leseling e batsi mabapi le boitlamo bo tsoang molaong ona, re bua ka sengoloa sa rona se fetileng 'Ho latela molao karolong ea molao ea maDutch'. Ha mekhatlo ea lichelete e sa tsamaisane le boitlamo bona, sena se ka ba le litlamorao tse mpe. Bopaki ba sena bo bontšoa kahlolong ea morao-rao ea Khomishene ea Dutch bakeng sa Boipiletso bakeng sa khoebo le indasteri (17 Pherekhong 2018, ECLI: NL: CBB: 2018: 6).

Kahlolo ea Khomishene ea Dutch bakeng sa Boipiletso bakeng sa khoebo le indasteri

Nyeoe ena e mabapi le k'hamphani ea trust e fanang ka lits'ebeletso tsa ts'epo ho batho ba tlhaho le likhoebo tsa molao. Khamphani ea trust e mo file lits'ebeletso ho motho oa tlhaho ea nang le matlo a marang-rang Ukraine (motho A). Theko ea matlo a marang-rang e ne e lekana USD 10,000,000. Motho A setifikeiti se hlahisitsoeng sa setsi sa thekiso ea matlo le thepa setheong sa molao (setheo B). Likabelo tsa Mokhatlo oa B li ne li ts'oaroa ke karolo ea kabelo e khethiloeng ea naha ea Seukraine (motho C). Ka hona, motho oa C e ne e le eena mohoebi oa thepa ea matlo le meaho. Ka nako e itseng, motho C o ile a fetisetsa likarolo tsa hae ho motho e mong (motho D). Motho C ha a ka a fumana letho ka tefo bakeng sa likarolo tsena, li fetisetsoa ho motho mahala mahala. Motho A tsebisitse k'hamphani ea trust mabapi le phetiso ea likabelo le khampani e ts'oereng trust hore e be mohiruoa e mocha oa ho fumana thepa. Likhoeli tse 'maloa hamorao, k'hamphani ea trust e ile ea tsebisa Setsi sa Patlo ea Lichelete sa Dutch ka thekiso e' maloa, ho kenyelletsa phetisetso ea likabelo tse boletsoeng pele. Ke ha mathata a hlaha. Kamora ho tsebisoa ka phetiso ea likarolo ho tloha ho motho C ho ea ho motho D, Dutch Bank ea Naha e lefisitse tefo ea EUR 40,000 ho khamphani ea trust. Lebaka la sena e ne e le ho hloleha ho latela Wwft. Ho latela Banka ea Naha ea Dutch, khamphani ea trust e ne e tlameha ho belaela hore phetisetso ea likabelo e ka amana le ho qhekelloa ha chelete kapa ho tšehetsa lichelete tsa bokhukhuni, kaha likarolo li fetisetsoa ntle ho tefo ha porojeke ea thekiso ea matlo e le chelete e ngata. Ka hona, k'hamphani ea trust e tlameha hore e tlalehe phetoho ena nakong ea matsatsi a leshome le metso e mene, e tsoang ho Wwft. Tlolo ena hangata e ahloloa ka tefo ea EUR 500,000. Leha ho le joalo, Banka ea Sechaba ea Dutch e hlophisitse tefo ena ho ea ho EUR 40,000 ka lebaka la tlolo ea molao le tlaleho ea k'hamphani e tšepahalang.

Khamphani e tšepahalang e ile ea isa nyeoe lekhotleng hobane e lumela hore tefo eo e beiloe ntle ho molao. Khamphani ea trust e ile ea pheha khang ea hore khoebo eo e ne e se khoebo ka ha ho hlalositsoe ho Wwft, kaha khoebo eo ho thoeng e ne e se khoebo ka lebaka la motho A. Leha ho le joalo, Khomishene e nahana ho fapaneng. Sebopeho lipakeng tsa motho A, mokhatlo B le motho C se entsoe ka sepheo sa ho qoba pokello ea lekhetho e tsoang ho mmuso oa Ukraine. Motho A o phethile karolo ea bohlokoa mohahong ona. Ntle le moo, mong'a sebaka sa thekiso ea matlo a marang-rang o ile a fetoha ka ho fetisetsa likabelo ho tloha ho motho C ho ea ho D. D. Sena se ne se kenyelletsa phetoho maemong a motho A, hobane motho ea neng a se a sa ts'oaretse thekiso ea matlo le moaho C ke motho. Motho A o ne a ameha haholo ketsahalong ena ka hona khoebo eo e ne e le lebitsong la motho A. Kaha motho A ke moreki oa k'hamphani ea trust, khampani ea trust e tlameha hore e tlalehe phetoho eo. Ho feta moo, Khomishene e boletse hore phetiso ea likarolo ke ketsahalo e sa tloaelehang. Sena se teng molemong oa hore likarolo li fetisetsoe ntle ho tefo, ha boleng ba thekiso ea matlo bo ne bo emetse USD 10,000,000. Hape, boleng ba thekiso ea matlo bo ile ba makatsa ka ho ba hammoho le thepa e 'ngoe ea motho C. Qetellong, e mong oa batsamaisi ba ofisi ea trust o supile hore thekiso eo e ne e le' e sa tloaelehang haholo ', e lumelang ho makatsa ha thekiso. Khoebo ka hona e baka lipelaelo tsa tšebeliso ea chelete kapa lichelete tsa bokhukhuni mme e ka be e tlalehiloe ntle le tšenyo ea nako. Ka hona, tefo e ne e beoa ka molao.

Kahlolo eohle e fumaneha ka sehokela sena.

Phokotso ea lichelete tse khahlanong le chelete le mekhoa ea lichelete ea bohanyetsi e khahlanong le bokhukhuni Ukraine

Nyeoe e boletsoeng ka holimo e bontša hore k'hamphani ea Dutch trust e ka lefisoa bakeng sa lits'ebetso tse etsahetseng Ukraine. Molao oa Madache ka hona o ka sebetsa le ho mekhatlo e sebetsang linaheng tse ling, ha feela ho na le khokahano le Netherlands. Netherlands e sebelisitse mehato e mengata ho fumana le ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Bakeng sa mekhatlo ea Seukraine e batlang ho sebetsa kahare ho Netherlands kapa bakeng sa bo-rakhoebo ba Maukraine ba batlang ho qala khoebo Netherlands, ho latela molao oa Netherlands ho ka ba thata. Sena se bakoa ke taba ea hore Ukraine e na le mekhoa e fapaneng ea ho sebetsana le tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni ebile ha e so ka e sebelisa mehato e pharalletseng joalo ka ha Netherlands e entse. Leha ho le joalo, ho loants'a lintlafatso tse khahlanong le chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni e bile sehlooho se ntseng se eketseha sa Ukraine. E bile sehlooho se joalo, hoo Lekhotla la Europe le ileng la etsa qeto ea ho qala lipatlisiso mabapi le tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni Ukraine.

Ka selemo sa 2017, Lekhotla la Yuropa le entse lipatlisiso mabapi le mekhoa ea lichelete e khahlanong le chelete le ea bosholu ba likhukhuni Ukraine. Patlisiso ena e entsoe ke komiti e khethiloeng ka ho khetheha, e leng Komiti ea Litsebi tsa Tlhahlobo ea Mehato e Tebelletsang Khahlano le Chelete le Chelete ea Bofuma (MONEYVAL). Komiti e hlahisitse tlaleho ea seo e se fumaneng ka December 2017. Tlaleho ena e fana ka kakaretso ea mekhoa ea lichelete e khahlanong le tšebeliso ea chelete le bahanyetsi e sebetsang sebakeng sa Ukraine. E sekaseka boemo ba ho latela likhothaletso tsa 40 Action Task Force XNUMX le boemo ba ts'ebetso ea ts'ebetso ea lichelete ea anti-chelete le tse khahlanong le bokhukhuni. Tlaleho e boetse e fana ka litlhahiso mabapi le hore na sistimi e ka matlafatsoa joang.

Liphetho tsa mantlha tsa lipatlisiso

Komiti e hlalositse lipheo tse 'maloa tsa bohlokoa tse tlisitseng phuputsong, tse akaretsang ka tlase:

  • Bobolu bo beha motho kotsing e kholo mabapi le tšebeliso ea chelete Ukraine. Bobolu bo hlahisa mesebetsi e mengata ea botlokotsebe le ho nyenyefatsa ts'ebetso ea litsi tsa mmuso le tsamaiso ea toka ea botlokotsebe. Ba boholong ba tseba ka likotsi tse hlahisoang ke bobolu 'me ba sebelisa mehato ea ho fokotsa likotsi tsena. Le ha ho le joalo, ts'ebetso ea ts'ebetso ea molao ho shebella tšebeliso ea chelete e amanang le bobolu e sa tsoa qala.
  • Ukraine e na le kutloisiso e ntle ea ts'ebeliso ea chelete le likotsi tsa lichelete tsa likhukhuni. Leha ho le joalo, ho utloisisa likotsi tsena ho ka ntlafatsoa libakeng tse ling, joalo ka likotsi tsa meeli, lekala le sa sebetseng phaello le batho ba molao. Ukraine e na le tšebelisano e pharalletseng ea naha le mekhoa ea ho etsa melao ho rarolla likotsi tsena, tse nang le phello e ntle. Khoebo e iqapetsoeng, moruo oa moriti le tšebeliso ea chelete li sa ntse li hloka ho rarolleha, hobane li beha kotsi e kholo ea ho senya chelete.
  • Setsi sa Intelligence ea Lichelete tsa Seukraine (UFIU) se hlahisa bohlale ba lichelete ba taelo e phahameng. Hangata hona ho baka lipatlisiso. Mekhatlo ea ts'ebetso ea molao e boetse e batla bohlale ho UFIU ho ts'ehetsa boiteko ba bona ba lipatlisiso. Leha ho le joalo, Sisteme ea IT ea UFIU e ntse e felloa ke nako 'me maemo a basebetsi ha a khone ho sebetsana le mojaro o moholo oa mosebetsi. Leha ho le joalo, Ukraine e nkile mehato ea ho ntlafatsa boleng ba tlaleho.
  • Phokotso ea chelete Ukraine e ntse e bonoa e le katoloso ea mesebetsi e meng ea botlokotsebe. Ho ne ho nahanoa hore tšebeliso ea chelete e ka isoa lekhotleng kamora ho qosoa ka pejana bakeng sa tlolo ea molao e boletsoeng esale pele. Likahlolo tsa ho senya chelete le tsona ha li tlase ho feta tlolo ea molao. Haufinyane ba boholong ba Ukraine ba qalile ho nka mehato ea ho nka chelete e itseng. Leha ho le joalo, mehato ena ha e bonahale e sebelisoa ka mokhoa o tšoanang.
  • Ho tloha ka 2014 Ukraine e tsepamisitse maikutlo ho litlamorao tsa bokhukhuni ba machabeng. Sena e ne e le haholo ka lebaka la ts'okelo ea Islamic State (IS). Patlisiso ea lichelete e etsoa joalo ka lipatlisiso tsohle tse amanang le bokhukhuni. Leha likarolo tsa sistimi e sebetsang li bonts'itsoe, moralo oa molao o ntse o sa lumellane ka botlalo le litekanyetso tsa machabeng.
  • Banka ea Naha ea Ukraine (NBU) e na le kutloisiso e ntle ea likotsi mme e sebelisa mokhoa o nepahetseng o thehiloeng ho ts'ebetsong taolo ea libanka. Ho entsoe boiteko bo matla ba ho netefatsa pepeneneng le ho tlosa litlokotsebe taolong ea libanka. NBU e sebelisitse likotlo tse fapaneng ho libankeng. Sena se hlahisitse ts'ebeliso e nepahetseng ea mehato ea thibelo. Leha ho le joalo, ba bang ba boholong ba hloka ntlafatso e kholo mosebetsing oa bona le ho sebelisa mekhoa ea thibelo.
  • Boholo ba mafapha a ikemetseng Ukraine a itšetleha ho Ngolisa ea Naha e Kopaneng ho netefatsa mong'a lona ea nang le molemo. Leha ho le joalo, Mongoli ha a netefatse hore tlhahisoleseling eo ba e fuoeng ke batho ba molao e nepahetse kapa ke ea morao-rao. Sena se nkoa e le bothata ba lintho tse bonahalang.
  • Ukraine e ntse e sebetsa ka thata ho faneng ka thuso ea molao le ho e batla. Leha ho le joalo, litaba tse kang li-depositi tsa chelete li na le tšusumetso ho katleho ea thuso e fanoeng ea molao e fanoeng. Bokhoni ba Ukraine ba ho fana ka thuso bo boetse bo angoa hampe ke ho pepeseha pepeneneng ha batho ba molao.

Liphetho tsa tlaleho

Ho latela tlaleho, ho ka fihlela qeto ea hore Ukraine e tobana le likotsi tsa bohlokoa tsa ho sebelisa chelete. Bobolu le mesebetsi e seng molaong ea moruo ke lisosa tse ka sehloohong tsa tšebeliso ea chelete. Ho ajoa ha Cash Ukraine ho atile mme ho eketsa moruo oa moriti Ukraine. Moruo ona oa moriti o beha kotsing e kholo ts'ebetsong ea lichelete le polokeho ea moruo oa naha. Mabapi le kotsi ea lichelete tsa bokhukhuni, Ukraine e sebelisoa e le naha ea lipapatso bakeng sa ba batlang ho kenela lisole tsa IS Syria. Lekala le sa etseng phaello le kotsing ea lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Lekala lena le sebelisitsoe hampe ho fetisetsa lichelete ho likhukhuni le mekhatlo ea likhukhuni.

Leha ho le joalo, Ukraine e nkile mehato ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Molao o mocha oa lichelete oa ho loants'a chelete / oa boipheliso o khahlanong le bokhukhuni o ile oa amoheloa ka 2014. Molao ona o hloka hore ba boholong ba etse tlhahlobo ea kotsi e le ho khetholla likotsi le ho hlalosa mehato ea ho thibela kapa ho fokotsa likotsi tsena. Liphetoho li bile li etsoa ho Khoutu ea Tsamaiso ea Tlolo ea Molao le Molao oa Tlolo ea Molao. Ho feta moo, ba boholong naheng ea Ukraine ba na le kutloisiso e kholo ea likotsi mme ba sebetsa hantle tumellanong ea malapa ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni.

Ukraine e se e nkile mehato e meholo ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Le ha ho le joalo, monyetla o ntse o ka ntlafala. Mefokolo e meng le ho hloka botsitso li lula moetlong oa tsamaiso ea mahlale oa Ukraine. Moralo ona o boetse o hloka ho tlisoa ho latela maemo a machabeng. Ntle le moo, ho sebelisa chelete hampe ho tlameha ho talingoa e le tlolo ea molao e fapaneng, eseng feela katoloso ea ketso e seng molaong ea botlokotsebe. Sena se tla fella ka ho qosa le ho khola tumelo ho feta. Lipatlisiso tsa lichelete li lokela ho nkuoa khafetsa 'me ho hlahlojoe le ho ngola ka tšebeliso ea chelete le likotsi tsa lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Ts'ebetso tsena li nkuoa e le liketso tsa pele ho Ukraine mabapi le tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni.

Tlaleho eohle e fumaneha ka sehokela sena.

fihlela qeto e

Phokotso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni li beha kotsi e kholo sechabeng sa rona. Ka hona, lihlooho tsena li sebetsoa lefatšeng ka bophara. Netherlands e se e sebelisitse mehato e mengata bakeng sa ho fumana le ho loants'a tšebeliso ea chelete le lichelete tsa bokhukhuni. Mehato ena ha e bohlokoa feela mekhatlong ea maDutch, empa e ka sebetsa le ho lik'hamphani tse ts'ebetso ea moeli. Wwft e sebetsa ha ho na le khokahano ea Netherlands, joalo ka ha ho bonts'oa kahlolong e boletsoeng ka holimo. Bakeng sa ditheo tse oelang tlasa sekhahla sa Wwft, ho bohlokoa ho tseba hore na bareki ba bona ke bo mang, e le hore ba tsamaisane le molao oa Dutch. Tlamo ena e ka sebetsa le ho mekhatlo ea Seukraine. Sena se ka 'na sa e-ba boima, hobane Ukraine ha e e-so etse ts'ebetso e pharalletseng joalo ea ho rekisa chelete le mekhoa ea lichelete e khahlanong le bokhukhuni joalo ka ha Netherlands e entse.

However, the report of MONEYVAL shows that Ukraine is taking steps in order to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. Ukraine has extensive understanding of money laundering and terrorist financing risks, which is an important first step. Yet, the legal framework still contains some flaws and uncertainties that need to be addressed. The widespread use of cash in Ukraine and the accompanying large shadow economy pose the biggest threat to the Ukrainian society.  Ukraine has certainly booked progress in its anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing policy, but there is still room for improvement. The legal frameworks of the Netherlands and Ukraine slowly grow closer to each other, which will eventually make it easier for Dutch and Ukrainian parties to cooperate. Until then, it is important for such parties to be aware of the Dutch and Ukrainian legal frameworks and realities, in order to comply with anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing measures.

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